Informazioni

Il museo comprende quattro sezioni – naturalistica, archeologica, sala esposizioni temporanee e sala polifunzionale – ed è progettato con la finalità di far conoscere l’ecosistema fluviale in ogni suo aspetto e particolarità. L’allestimento comprende microscopi, acquari, filmati e diorami ed ha un taglio fortemente didattico.

Quanto alla sezione archeologica, si trova al piano interrato ed è stata realizzata con l’acquisto di alcune antiche grotte sottostanti: reperti e fossili provengono non solo da Nazzano ma da tutta la media valle del Tevere, con particolare riferimento all’area di Lucus Feroniae che comprendeva anche Nazzano.

Link di approfondimento:

http://www.museiresina.it/scuole/

http://www.le1000e1notte.it/museo-del-fiume-nazzano-le-nostre-attivita-la-scuola/

http://www.le1000e1notte.it/tu-tu-fiume-alla-scoperta-della-riserva-regionale-tevere-farfa/

Indirizzo: Via Mazzini 4, 00060 Nazzano (Rm).

Orario: dal martedì al sabato ore 9,30-16,30.

Per info o prenotazioni negli altri giorni, chiamare i num. 335-68805150765-332002 o scrivere a museodelfiume@libero.it

Sistema Museale RESINA

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Amici del Museo del Fiume

Costo ingresso solo museo: 1€

Costi aggiuntivi per visite guidate e laboratori, in questo caso si prega di contattare la Cooperativa sociale “Le Mille e una notte” Tel./Fax 06 86210833 – mail:  scuola@lemilleeunanotte.coop – msg w/app  393.9257830

La struttura, attiva sin dal 2002, è una realtà legata all’interpretazione e alla valorizzazione scientifica dell’Area Protetta Regionale di Nazzano, Tevere-Farfa. Il percorso illustra la vita di un fiume, il Tevere, attraverso le sale di geologia, botanica, zoologica e attività antropiche. Nei suoi 1.000 mq circa oltre ai percorsi espositivi, consta di una sala Polifunzionale, una sala Mostre Temporanee, un percorso ipogeo all’interno di cavità artificiali, una sala collezioni. Oltre alle attività didattiche sono una realtà gli appuntamenti a cadenza annuale, quali: Festival della Biodiversità, Mostra multimediale Vivere il Passato, Concorso e Mostra di Artigianato Artistico, Concorso Internazionale di Mosaico “Pictor Imaginarius”, Mostra Vivere il Presente, Mercatino di Natale.

Il percorso Museale

Ingresso Museo – Sala Geologica – Sala Botanica – Sala Zoologica (piano terra) – Le Grotte – Sala Mostre Temporanee – I Laboratori – Sala Paleontologica – Sala Zoologica (1° Piano) – Il Greto – Raccolta Ornitologica

Storia del Museo

Il Museo del Fiume è situato ai piedi del Castello Savelli nel centro storico di Nazzano. E’ nato per volontà dell’Amministrazione Comunale, quella stessa che nel 1979 favorì la creazione della Riserva Naturale Tevere-Farfa (prima area protetta naturale regionale del Lazio), il Museo del Fiume è stato realizzato a partire dal 2000 grazie a fondi comunitari e finanziamenti regionali e provinciali. Le mura e gli spazi del Museo un tempo erano i granai ed i vecchi magazzini del castello.  

Il Museo del Fiume è stato istituito nel 2000, grazie anche all’apporto di un comitato tecnico-scientifico. Superficie struttura: 1.000 mq circa Marchio Qualità Regione Lazio Sistema tematico regionale RE.SI.NA. Servizi: Visite guidate Attività didattiche Sala Polifunzionale – Teatro Comunale, Sala Mostre Temporanee Collocato al centro del paese, il Museo del Fiume è un piccolo gioiello dedicato alla scoperta dei segreti del Tevere; dagli aspetti geologici che caratterizzano la sua valle, alle piante e agli animali che lo popolano, fino al suo legame con le comunità o ai problemi dell’inquinamento. Microscopi che ingrandiscono sabbie colorate, gocce d’acqua in cui vivono minuscoli abitanti, ricostruzioni di habitat fluviali, una collezione ornitologica di specie locali e perfino un percorso all’interno di una grotta, garantiscono un visita ricca di suggestioni e di indizi per esplorare la Riserva. Ubicato all’interno degli ambienti esterni utilizzati per la logistica della vita del Castello Savelli, il Museo del Fiume si articola in varie sezioni a spiccata vocazione didattica, create in funzione dell’approfondimento di temi legati all’ecosistema fluviale: a partire dall’analisi della morfologia del territorio, dei fenomeni geologici caratteristici del bacino del Tevere, illustrati mediante pannelli esplicativi, modelli ed esposizione di materiale lapideo proprio dell’area, per arrivare all’individuazione di tutti i più importanti aspetti della vita vegetale e animale che ne caratterizzano l’habitat. Un’interessante sezione affronta la lettura dell’ecosistema in rapporto ai principali fenomeni di antropizzazione; da segnalare anche la raccolta ornitologica incentrata sulle principali specie di uccelli di passo presenti nel territorio della Riserva Naturale Regionale di Nazzano Tevere Farfa. Suggestive sono le grotte scavate nella arenaria marina ospitanti un percorso paleontologico.

La struttura museale consta di una Sala Mostre Temporanee e una Sala Polifunzionale che permettono lo svolgersi di diverse attività da quelle culturali a quelle sportive e ricreative.

Regolamento del Museo del Fiume

Art. 1 Il Museo del Fiume, istituito dal Comune di Nazzano ai fini di una migliore conservazione e valorizzazione del proprio patrimonio culturale, funziona secondo le norme del presente Regolamento.

Art. 2a Adesione del Museo al Sistema museale territoriale. Il Museo del Fiume aderirà al Sistema museale territoriale della Regione Lazio. Art. 2b Adesione del museo al Sistema museale tematico. Il Museo aderirà al Sistema museale tematico della Regione Lazio. Sezioni del Museo

Art. 3 Il Museo si articola nelle seguenti due sezioni: – Sezione Naturalistica – Sezione Storico-antropologica.

Art. 4 Finalità e funzioni del museo E’ scopo del museo facilitare e sviluppare la conoscenza e la valorizzazione de beni culturali e ambientali in tutte le loro forme e manifestazioni, nonché documentare la storia e la cultura di cui esso è espressione. Per il perseguimento di tali finalità nell’ambito della normativa vigente, il Museo, oltre a raccogliere, tutelare e conservare le testimonianze, le opere e gli oggetti che contribuiscono al suo allestimento, costituisce il principale polo di salvaguardia e documentazione della realtà territoriale e realizza attività dirette alla promozione culturale dei cittadini e alla valorizzazione turistica del territorio. Al riguardo il Museo organizza mostre, attività didattiche, visite guidate, manifestazioni, conferenze ed ogni altra iniziativa atta ad individuare i Musei come servizio culturali pubblici e polifunzionali. Infine, il Museo rappresenta un punto di riferimento per ogni attività di ricerca scientifica nel settore dei beni culturali e ambientali, da svolgersi previa autorizzazione, che la Direzione del Museo può rilasciare tenendo conto anche delle esigenze legate alla conservazione dei materiali e dei motivi di opportunità connessi a studi o ricerche già in corso. Nei casi previsti dalla vigente normativa è cura del Direttore richiedere la necessaria autorizzazione alle competenti Soprintendenze. Per attività di ricerca scientifica il Museo instaura ogni possibile forma di collaborazione con le competenti Soprintendenze. Il Museo, oltre a costituire una fonte di documentazione, può farsi promotore di iniziative tendenti ad un arricchimento e approfondimento della documentazione stessa e si pone come uno dei destinatari de risultati delle ricerche eventualmente svolte.

Art. 5 Direzione del Museo Il Direttore è responsabile del funzionamento del museo, sulla base degli indirizzi di gestione stabiliti dalla Giunta Comunale. Il Direttore risponde del suo operato all’Assessore competente. Il Direttore deve possedere un adeguato titolo di studio (laurea attinente alla tipologia del Museo) e, preferibilmente, un curriculum attestante l’esperienza maturata nel settore. La nomina del Direttore deve essere comunicata immediatamente all’Assessorato regionale alle politiche per la promozione della cultura, dello spettacolo e del turismo e per conoscenza all’Assessorato alla cultura della Provincia, nonché alle competenti Soprintendenze. Il Direttore riceve in consegna dall’Amministrazione, con regolare verbale, la sede, le raccolte, i materiali e le attrezzature del Museo ed i relativi inventari. Il Direttore è responsabile della gestione del Museo stesso, della sistemazione dei locali, dell’ordinamento delle raccolte, della costituzione e dell’aggiornamento degli inventari, del disbrigo della corrispondenza e della tenuta del relativo protocollo. Il direttore avanza proposte in merito all’incremento delle raccolte, al programma di catalogazione e di restauro dei materiali, alla compilazione di guide e cataloghi illustrativi del museo. Cura la realizzazione di tutte le iniziative culturali e didattiche programmate. Coordina e dirige altresì il personale assegnato al museo. Il Direttore è inoltre responsabile dell’esazione dei diritti di ingresso, della tenuta dei registri di carico e di scarico dei materiali e di quelli di entrata e di uscita, dei fondi in dotazione della Direzione, della custodia delle chiavi, degli inventari e delle schede di catalogo. Il Direttore è responsabile della raccolta e della elaborazione dei dati statistici relativi ai servizi ed all’utenza, nei limiti posti dalla legge n. 675/96, sull’uso e la tenuta dei dati personali.

Art.6 Inventariazione Il Museo è dotato di un registro inventariale, nel quale devono essere debitamente elencate tutte le opere conservate nel Museo. Ogni opera ed ogni oggetto, che entra definitivamente o per acquisto o per dono o per legato o per qualsiasi altra causa nel Museo, deve essere immediatamente registrato dal Direttore e segnalato alla competente Soprintendenza. Nell’inventario devono essere indicati: numero progressivo di registro, data di entrata, descrizione sommaria di ogni pezzo, misure (per il materiale proveniente dalle collezioni di Stato si può copiare la descrizione presente negli inventari statali), quantità dei pezzi (quando si tratta di più frammenti raggruppabili sotto una unica voce), provenienza (ivi compresa l’indicazione di tutte le notizie conosciute circa la originaria collocazione ed i recenti trasferimenti del bene da inventariare), collocazione, riferimento alle schede di catalogazione (od a foto e disegni), annotazioni (situazione di deposito, eventuale numero di inventario delle collezioni di Stato ecc.). Devono essere, altresì, annotate tutte le eventuali uscite temporanee o definitive dei beni conservati nel Museo. La numerazione progressiva originaria di inventario non può essere mutata.

Art. 7 Catalogazione Dei materiali inventariati viene redatta la scheda di catalogazione informatizzata secondo i criteri seguiti dall’Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione e sulla base delle direttive e dei programmi della Regione Lazio. Le schede, la documentazione fotografica ed i supporti informatici sono conservati presso il Museo. Copia degli stessi viene trasmessa al Centro Regionale per la Documentazione dei beni culturali e ambientali, alla competente Soprintendenza e all’Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione. Per quanto attiene alla catalogazione dei beni demoetnoantropologici la copia prevista per la Soprintendenza competente viene trasmessa al Museo delle Arti e Tradizioni Popolari di Roma. La richiesta dei numeri di catalogo viene inoltrata alle Soprintendenze competenti e notificata in copia all’Assessorato regionale alle Politiche per la promozione della cultura, dello spettacolo e del turismo, Settore Beni culturali – Ufficio Musei. Per quanto concerne la catalogazione dei beni demoetnoantropologici, la richiesta dei numeri di catalogo va inoltrata al Centro Regionale di Documentazione. Per quanto attiene alle attività di catalogazione finanziate con risorse di provenienza regionale, in forma diretta o indiretta, i catalogatori vengono individuati esclusivamente nell’ambito delle graduatorie formate a tale scopo e secondo i criteri stabiliti dagli avvisi pubblicati sul B.U.R. del Lazio.

Art. 8 Deposito dei materiali Il deposito temporaneo dei materiali di proprietà dello Stato viene effettuato dalla Soprintendenza competente, con le modalità stabilite da un’apposita Convenzione, da stipulare tra la Soprintendenza stessa ed il Comune. Il Direttore (o in sua assenza il Sindaco) ne accusa ricevuta con atto formale ed assume da quel momento tutte le responsabilità civili e penali inerenti la sicurezza e la conservazione.

Art. 9 Conservazione e restauro dei materiali Al fine di garantire la buona conservazione e il restauro dei materiali delle raccolte, l’Amministrazione, su proposta del Direttore, affida i vari lavori, a seconda del settore di intervento, a tecnici qualificati. Il restauro dei materiali, che deve essere effettuato in base alle direttive e alla programmazione regionale, può essere realizzato solo previa autorizzazione formale della competente Soprintendenza, che vigila altresì sulla sua realizzazione.

Art. 10 Prestiti Nessuna opera e nessun oggetto può essere trasportato fuori del Museo, per mostre o iniziative culturali, senza la preventiva autorizzazione, ove previsto, della competente Soprintendenza. Le opere e gli oggetti concessi in prestito devono essere assicurati a cura ed a carico del Museo o dell’Ente richiedente per il valore che sarà indicato dal Direttore del Museo.

Art. 11 Rilascio autorizzazioni Il Direttore può concedere, su istanza scritta, l’autorizzazione ad eseguire ricerche, fotografie e comunque riproduzioni degli oggetti e dei documenti, in base alla normativa vigente. Egli richiederà per l’archivio del Museo, oltre a copia della riproduzione (foto, filmato, calco ecc.), anche una copia dell’eventuale elaborato (tesi di laurea, articolo scientifico) che riguardi gli oggetti di cui sopra.

Art. 12 Orario di apertura Il Museo è aperto al pubblico per un orario che garantisca gli standars minimi previsti dal Piano Settoriale regionale. Il Museo espone al pubblico il proprio orario e, se appartenente ad un Sistema museale territoriale, anche quello degli altri musei associati e fornisce preventiva informazione all’utenza per ogni variazione apportata.

Art. 13 Biglietto di ingresso L’ingresso al Museo avviene dietro pagamento di un biglietto, il cui costo sarà determinato con deliberazione della Giunta Comunale. L’Ente titolare del Museo stabilisce le eventuali agevolazioni anche il base alle consuetudini nazionali ed internazionali. Ai fini statistici anche per gli ingressi gratuiti deve essere distribuito il relativo biglietto.

Art. 14 Custodia e manutenzione Il Comune assicura una adeguata custodia dei locali e dei beni del Museo con il necessario personale nell’orario di apertura e con adeguati sistemi di sicurezza durante la chiusura. Il Comune provvede alla manutenzione ordinaria e straordinaria del Museo.

Art. 15 Per quanto non previsto nel presente regolamento si fa rinvio alla vigente legislazione in materia.

Testi Museo in lingua inglese

Ground Floor: Geological Room; Botanical Room; Zoological Room.

First Floor: Archaeological Rooms. Palaeontology section.

Geological Room: being the first room of the Museo Del Fiume, it tells by means of the equilibrium profile of the river, how the Tiber, an extremely important modelling agent, transforms the area it flows through.

Botanical Room: starting from a 1000-time enlarged river water drop, visitors can plunge into the adjustments that terrestrial plants have used for colonising the space submerged by fresh waters.

Zoological Room: the itinerary deals with the problems and the adjustments which many animals, especially insects, have faced and solved for colonising the aquatic environment, one of these being breathing while under water. References to other themes are present, i.e. the relationship between preys and predators, the interaction between forms and functions, as well as biodiversity issues.

First Floor Room: Archaeological Rooms: The two archaeological rooms, even though still lacking some exhibits to show, deal with the life of the area from the first pre-Roman settlements to the Middle Ages. Recent findings of production scraps and Pre-historic tools, coming from the area of Campo Nazzano, will be inserted in the museum.

First Floor Rooms: Zoological Rooms: To reach the floors upstairs, visitors have to go up a spiral staircase flanked with different birds species, which are proofs of the different food levels thriving in the Nazzano Tevere-Farfa Nature Reserve. There, fish tanks and ornithological collections, situated in three different areas, show the delicate relationship between men and the river and the living beings which populate it.

Palaeontology Section: just inaugurated, it uses an ancient cavern built by men about 400 years ago to show the history of the recent geological past of the area. This cavern was dug in the cemented marine sands over which the museum building is placed. Native fossils are on display there.

Geological Room.

Identity Card of the Tiber

Latin name: Tiber. Italian name: Tevere. Source: “Le Vene” Monte Fumaiolo, Tosco-Emiliano Apennines, Emilia Romagna Region. Spring Height: 1,268 m above sea level. Real length of the main course: 405 km. Distance in straight line between the source and the mouth: 225 km. Main right tributaries: the Nestore, the fluvial system Chiani-Paglia and the Treia. Main left tributaries: Chiascio-Topino system, Salto-Turano-Velino-Nera system and the Aniene. Extension of the hydrographic basin: 17,156 km2. Average capacity in Rome: 225 m3/s. Place of arrival: Tyrrhenian Sea, Roman coastline, with a bi-winged delta mouth. Distinguishing marks: the Italian culture has risen and developed along its banks.

THE RIVER

A river originates from the collection of spring and rain waters, other than those deriving from melting glaciers and ice on a portion of terrestrial surface. A fluvial system is made up of a main river and its tributaries, i.e. waterways flowing into it. The catchment or hydrographic basin is the area collecting and conveying rain water towards the same main flow. This basin is delimited by the watershed line that connects the basin crests where the run-off waters are conveyed, thus separating the main basin from the adjacent ones. Inside the basin, the fluvial system or water grid, formed by the main watercourse and its tributaries, develops.

Traduzione di Fabi Alessia , Frisoni Giulia, Melone Ludovica, Ortenzi Michela, Tromboni Elisabetta – Classe 4 BS – Liceo Scientifico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

FLUVIAL MODELLING

The activity of a river, from its spring to its mouth, can be explained through three basic processes: erosion, transport and sedimentation. Erosion is a destructive process basically caused by such physical actions as abrasion or cavitation, or such a chemical one as dissolution. Erosion always follows a regressive evolution, thus progressively moving upstream. Transport is a process which includes dragging, saltation and sand and pebble rolling along the riverbed. Suspension occurs for thinner particles, whereas floating involves material which is lighter than water. All transported material makes up a river load, which is at its peak during floods. Even though rivers usually run at a speed of 1 to 3 km/h , they can collect and carry material already at 0.1 km/h. Deposition or sedimentation is the constructive process of a river modelling. It takes place along the whole river, but it is more effective where the stream power is inferior to the one which is necessary either to win the friction at the riverbed and at the banks or to transport material. For example, this happens: in the areas characterised by a marked decrease in the riverbed inclination; in the sections where a river flows into a lake or the sea; in the areas where the riverbed broadens reducing its speed; where a river crosses a dry area, thus consequently reducing its load. The subsided material is usually found in the shape of banks along the river bends or in the middle of the riverbed.

EQUILIBRIUM PROFILE

A topographic profile along the riverbed length gives the so-called bottom curve or longitudinal outline. The one referring to the River Tiber can be seen on this wall. The shape of this curve, which is concave upwards, depends on the geological and hydrological characteristics of the river course. It allows to identify the areas where erosion phenomena mainly take place as well as the ones where sedimentation processes prevail. Each water course tends to stabilise at an average condition of dynamic equilibrium, also known as equilibrium profile, a sort of compromise between erosion and sedimentation processes. Nevertheless, such a profile keeps evolving, since erosion causes a reduction upstream whereas sedimentation causes its lengthening downstream. The main restriction to the evolution of equilibrium profile is its base level, which for each river corresponds to the level of the river mouth in a sea or lake.

RIVER LANDSCAPE

The flow of a river, from spring to mouth, consists of various stages and typical landscapes which are the result of fluvial modelling. A very active vertical erosion takes place upstream (in mountain areas), at high potential and kinetic energy levels. So, the resulting valley is narrow and deep and has got a V-shape profile. If erosion is particularly rapid, the formation of gorges (deep narrow carvings with vertical walls) occurs. Erosion mostly develops horizontally rather than vertically in the central flow of a river (in piedmont areas). Here, the valley profile tends to have a wider V-shape and valley floors are broad with a hardly prominent slope. Downstream (in alluvial areas), the river drops off a lot of material and slowly flows along meanders through a virtually flat alluvial plain. A meander is characterised by a concave bank, where the river current causes erosion, and a convex bank, where sediments are deposited. As soon as a river flows into a lake or a sea, a more or less rapid deposit of suspended materials occurs. These sediments create a delta, a typical fan-shaped sedimentary deposit which resembles the Greek letter of the same name. In particular, a delta is formed when a river pours, at its mouth, an amount of material which is superior to the one tides, streams and waves manage to scatter. Delta sediments are made up of gravel, sand and clayey silt, which alternate in the sedimentation process, owing to the river flow rate.

Traduzione di Brugiotti Giulia, Macchini Elisa, Morandi Valentina, Palmieri Anastasia – Classe 3 AL – Liceo Linguistico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

WATER THROUGH ROCKS

Just a little amount of the rainwater touching the ground after a precipitation slowly leaks towards the subsoil and flows to the base level. Springs represent the outcrop points of these waters. Infiltration waters run through underground water routes, which are created by nature and rock layer tectonics. The capability of rocks to be percolated by waters, owing to their porosity, cracking, direction, immersion and the slope of layers, is fundamental for the movement of water towards the base level. These conditions cause the waters infiltrating into a particular hydrographic basin to rush down into other nearby basins, as the geological watersheds and the relative underground basin (named hydrogeological basin) don’t correspond to the surface one.

Botanic Room

CONQUERING WATER

Algae and several other organisms have not disappeared from the aquatic environment where life itself originated. Yet, the most evolved plants which are easily observed in seas, rivers and lakes today derive from terrestrial forms which have subsequently re-adapted to water. In fact, some aquatic plants have simplifications in the structure of their organs (trunks, roots, leaves, flowers), if compared to their terrestrial “relatives”. Fresh water plants, for instance, do not need any supporting tissues, as they are sustained by the water thrust; they have got neither reserve tissues for water nor such coatings as wax and hairs that prevent dehydration and are usually very evident in the plants living in arid climates. Plants living in an aquatic environment need to solve the problem of breathing. This is the reason why they have got hollow trunks and roots, which are endowed with an aerated tissue called aeriferous parenchyma. The latter allows gaseous exchanges among cells even under water. Besides, water plants also possess hydrodynamic submerged leaves designed to resist currents.

RIPARIAN WOOD

A riparian wood is made up of plants which thrive in environments characterised by abundant water. Nowadays, riparian woods are situated discontinuously along the Tiber and centuries-old ones can be considered as a rarity. The valley floor grounds where rivers and streams flow are so fertile that men have always deforested these areas, so as to cultivate them up to the river banks. Willows, poplars and alders easily grow together in riverbeds. Many of these trees have got great regenerative and dispersion capacity. The uprooted branches of willows and poplars, drifted by water, can give rise to new species as they rapidly grow roots. Huge amounts of small seeds, provided with hairs allowing them both to be carried by winds and to float in water, guarantee riparian wood trees the possibility of rapidly colonising new areas along the river.

Traduzione di Catricalà Martina, Fabriani Martina, Giannini Nicole, Miniucchi Asia – Classe 3 AL – Liceo Linguistico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

Zoological Room – Ground Floor

BREATHING Some animals directly take in the oxygen which is diluted in water to breathe, either through their body surface or through their gills, i.e. those specialised organs particularly evident in fish and amphibian larvae. In some water insects larval status oxygen goes through water into some small breathing channels via some special laminate expansions of their bodies. A lot of species, that have not got any organs to breathe in water, use some oxygen reserves to resist as long as possible underwater. Such mammals as river otters or nutrias keep the air directly inside their lungs; some invertebrates use bubbles which are periodically renewed; others, instead, are endowed with tubes or siphons connecting them to the water surface.

DRAGONFLIES Dragonflies are among the most typical representatives of river fauna. As for all insects, their life cycle is accomplished by passing through a series of larval stages which precede the adult one. Their aquatic larvae are skilled predators exploiting their ability to remain motionless and to mingle with the debris on the riverbed or with vegetation. Whenever a prey passes by, they quickly snap and get hold of it by means of a structure in the form of a gripper which is located in their mouthpart. Their staple diet consists of small crustaceans, larvae of other insects and tadpoles. Grown up larvae climb along the stems of water plants and emerge to the surface, where they wait to get rid of their larval cuticle in order to become adults. Dragonflies are powerful fliers which maintain their predatory eating habits by using their excellent sight to locate other insects and capture them while flying.

AMPHIBIANS AND INSECTS

Rivers are not just the realm of birds or fish, but plenty of invertebrates inhabit them. Other than many worms and molluscs, a relevant part of a river fauna is represented by insects. The most characteristic among them are those which literally change life during their metamorphosis. In fact, they live on the river bottom as larvae and outside water in their adult stage. The ephemera life cycle is very peculiar. During their long larval phase, which can be several years long, ephemeras are focussed on feeding, but in their adult stage [N. 1] they live a very short life, just long enough to reproduce. Their larvae body shape is more or less flat, depending on species thriving in rapid or slow waters.

The larvae of stoneflies usually eat debris and prefer well-oxygenated clean waters. Their adults [N. 3] are characterised by a great variety of eating habits. The most common characteristic of tricopthera larvae is to live in protective cases they themselves build with the most varied materials (small stones, vegetable debris, shells, etc.). Their adults [N. 4] cannot feed themselves, but they occasionally drink water or other liquids. As the tolerance rate of invertebrates to water pollution changes from species to species, these animals are used as bio-indicators: in fact, it is possible to determine the quality of waters and the wellness of river sections by analysing all the species of an area.

Traduzione di Moschetti Elisa, Oudrhiri Miriam Romina, Paganelli Francesca, Pizzoli Dalila – Classe 3 AL – Liceo Linguistico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

BIODIVERSITY

What is usually meant by biodiversity is the variety of life in an environment or in a certain area. The number of species living in a habitat is the easiest way of considering it. As each species presents a particular life strategy, other than playing a specific role in an environment, the number of species coexisting in an area depends on the possibility of carrying out different tasks. Among the many factors that can promote biodiversity, one of the most important is represented by the complexity of the environment itself. In fact, the greater the number of microenvironments is, the more likely it will be for species with particular needs and ecological roles to settle. Ecosystems with greater biodiversity show an evident vertical complexity: it is as if they were made up of layers that, when overlapping, would favour the presence of a high number of species. For example, the environmental conditions in the river greatly change from the riverbed upwards: there are organisms living in the river bottom [N.1], some swimming in the water mass, some living on the water surface [N.2], thus exploiting the surface tension [N.3], and some others even occupying the overlying air space.

PREYS AND PREDATORS

To grant the stability of a community of organisms, no being must overcome the others as a result of an uncontrolled demographic growth. The predatory phenomenon is thus of paramount importance, as the rate among the various species is kept constant by the balance between preys and predators. Even though this sounds strange, predation may also be beneficial for the preys themselves. In fact, if preys were left free to reproduce without any restriction, they would become so abundant as to exhaust their own provisions in very short time, thus starving of hunger for lack of food. Much of the feeding relationship among the animals in a river is a prey and predators interaction.

FOOD CHAIN

As machines can’t work without fuel, so the totality of organisms living in an environment survives thanks to energy transfer. Plants are the only species that can directly employ solar power for their basic needs, whereas animals must consume

food, which is nothing but energy trapped in the form of chemical bounds. This energy is subsequently released into the organism during digestion. Some animals, the so-called herbivorous, can feed themselves directly on plants; others, instead, going under the name of predators, have specialised in capturing and eating herbivorous; some others prey on predators. Even though some animals prey on those predators which feed on other predators, the number of links in a food chain isn’t never ending; on the contrary, this number is always quite restricted, because the real amount of energy really transferred at every step is always quite modest; consequently, the lowest links in the food chain are provided with scarce energy. As food represents an essential life resource, lots of organisms have adapted to exploit every eating chance. A very important role is played by decomposers, which eat the remains and the decomposed materials of other animals and plants, thus preventing their accumulation in the environment. Parasites, instead, use little amounts of energy by directly living off other organisms.

Traduzione di Di Mascolo Emiliano, Ragazzini Giorgio, Sorana Francesco, Tatu Samanta – Classe 4 AS – Liceo Scientifico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

FORM AND FUNCTION

There is always a limit to the number of species that can live together in the same area. In fact, when an environment starts becoming too crowded, phenomena of reciprocal rivalry, for example for food or just for space, are triggered. Feeding on different kinds of food is a way to attenuate the contrasts among species, which diversify their habits as much as possible. The necessity of specialising in particular feeding strategies is often at the basis of the variety of species which characterise the animal world. The different kinds of beaks in birds living near rivers and torrents reflect the different ways of obtaining food for the species. The kingfisher (Alcedo Atthis) [N. 1] jumps into the water to catch fish with its long sharp beak. The coot (Fulica Atra) [N. 2], that has a soft sensitive beak, explores slush looking for small invertebrates. The beak of mud-dwelling birds [N. 3], being thin and sharp, is used as a precision instrument for catching small animals beside the banks.

ZOOLOGICAL ROOM (FIRST FLOOR)

SINGING WITH THE RIVER

Lots of animal species communicate one another by singing. Sound emissions, especially used by birds, but also by lots of amphibians and insects, are mostly a characteristic trait of male animals. In fact, males basically chirp in order to try and attract females and to scare other males. Firstly, a birdsong gives information about the species emitting it, but it also gives lots of other information mostly concerning their health, predisposition to mate and to defend their area. Anurous amphibians, which are tailless in their adult stage as frogs, fire-bellied toads, toads [N. 1], noisemakers [N. 2-3], generate noises by blowing some air through their vocal cords and using some parts of their buccal cavities as sound-boxes. Sometimes, it can happen to hear a lot of overlapping croaks along the rivers. Although these noises can turn out to be very similar at a human ear, these various amphibians are perfectly able to recognise each other and to court the right partners.

AMPHIBIANS

Even though amphibians prefer ponds and lakes, a lot of them live in slow-paced canals and rivers, other than in the surrounding areas. Frogs are certainly the most iconic representatives of this species. Two main types of frogs are known: edible frogs [N. 3] and grass frogs [N. 4]. The former remain closely linked to water even in their adulthood, diving into it when in danger. The latter are more earth-bound, but return to water for reproduction. In fact, the larvae of amphibians need water to develop.

FISH

The physical and chemical characteristics of a river greatly change from its source to its mouth. Therefore, a considerable ecological diversification takes place along its flow, thus conditioning the type of organisms which can live in each tract. The stream speed considerably influences the form of swimming animals like fish. In fact, these animals must be able to move in such a thick medium as water. They must also oppose water strength and control their body orientation and direction. Such species characterised by a highly hydrodynamic shape as some Salmonids prefer the environments where the water flows quickly. Those species characterised by a less tapered body with more protruding fins, like Bleaks [N. 2], Barbels, Tenchs and Carps, can settle in downstream tracts where the water is slower. Beside body shape, evolution has rewarded any possible adaptation which might minimise the resistance to motion in water. The body of species living in quicker streams is usually covered with a thin layer of mucus limiting the turbulences which may occur because of the roughness and protrusions of their body surface. This is particularly evident in Trouts (Salmo trutta) [N.1]. The pollution caused by human activity has been heavily compromising the quality of river waters and deeply altering fish population. Beside some species that are directly damaged, others are affected by the imbalance in the number of the organisms they feed on.

Traduzione di Caramia Riccardo, Liguori Roberto, Coviello Luca, Di Carlo Osvaldo, Bellesia Martino – Classe 4 BS – Liceo Scientifico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

REPTILES

Obviously, no alligators or crocodiles live in Italy, but even in our territory some reptiles can be found, especially in slow-flowing rivers and other water environments. The ring-snake (Natrix Natrix) is one of the snakes which can be seen more frequently while swimming in search for preys. Unlike land tortoises, pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) are generally carnivorous and attack a wide variety of aquatic animals.

Archaeological Rooms

Another little section, the Archaeological one, introduces and witnesses the main historical phases of the settlement in this area. It also presents the events that gave birth to the village of Nazzano, going back to the most important phases of human settlements from Prehistory to the Middle Ages in the Tiber Middle Valley.

Paleontology Room

THE FOSSILS OF NAZZANO

Nazzano, like many of the villages overlooking the Tiber Valley, presents interesting fossiliferous outcrops in its area. In most cases, fossils belong to both big and small coastal marine organisms, ranging from 10 centimetres to a few millimetres, living right here when the area was still submerged by the sea. Although the sea is far away from here nowadays, evidence of its presence is frequent and easily noticeable.

In fact, the remains of the shells of big filter-feeding bivalve molluscs as oysters, which belong to the genus Ostrea, can be found in the areas where marine sand is visible, thanks to river and wind erosion. In this ancient cave, as in many others dug by men in this area, the sand reveals treasures which have been hidden for ages.

WHAT IS A FOSSIL?

A fossil is any remain or the impression of any organism dating back to past geological ages and preserved because embedded in sedimentary rocks. The long complex transformations allowing an organism to fossilise after death are known under the name of fossilisation processes, such as mineralisation, inclusion and encrustation. As fossilisation processes are very often extraordinary events, all the places witnessing the biological past of our planet with inert rocks speaking about life in time can be considered as unique outcrops.

INDEX FOSSILS

Every fossil tells a story linked to the species it belongs to and to the environment it lived and was preserved in. Among the many forms of life following one another in geological ages, there are some called index fossils. They are particularly helpful to identify, to correlate and to date various outcrops and different rocks with great precision. The main feature of index fossils is their broad geographical distribution, combined with a short temporal one. Index fossils are species that after appearing quickly asserted themselves, widely spread and rapidly became extinct. It is clear that among the thousands of forms of life following one another on the Earth and leaving fossil remains, those that can be called index fossils are really few.

Traduzione di Cecchini Sara Nicole, De Lio Christian – Classe 3 AL – Liceo Linguistico “Lorenzo Rocci” – De Iuliis Iula Paula – Classe 4 AC – Liceo Classico “Lorenzo Rocci” – Passo Corese

Le traduzioni sono state revisionate e corrette dai Tutor Interni, Proff. Paolo Fusi e Ignazio Guarrato, Docenti di Lingua e Cultura Inglese presso il Liceo “Lorenzo Rocci” di Fara in Sabina.

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